OODA Loop: What is it and how can it be used?
This article describes the concept op the OODA Loop, developed by John Boyd in a practical way. After reading you will understand the basics of this powerful decision making process tool.
Skill Booster: OODA Loop video
What is an OODA Loop?
John Boyd ddeveloped the OODA Loop based on his experiences as a fighter pilot during the Korean War and later as an instructor.
This decision making process consists of Observe, Orient, Decide and Act. It is a cyclical model, that is used in military strategy, but also in law enforcement and business. By using this OODA Loop you are able to continuously adapt to changing circumstances and use this to draw on your strengths.
In aerial combat, reaction time and split-second decisions and actions are crucial. When response times are too slow, the enemy gets the upper hand. We live in a rapidly changing world. If you do not change with the times, chances are that you will go under.
The OODA Loop explained (video)
Interaction with environment
John Boyd developed the OODA Loop from this key concept. This is the process in which an individual or organization responds to an event, where situational awareness is key. By responding quickly to situations and taking appropriate decisions faster, you can get ahead of your opponent’s decision cycle.
He assumed that intelligent organisms and organizations are in constant interaction with their environment. According to him, it causes complexity in an organization when managers and employees become prisoners of their own views. An organization can only survive if it breaks through this impasse by adapting itself to changing external conditions.
OODA Loop Diagram
In the OODA Loop Diagram, John Boyd divided this decision-making process into four interacting and overlapping main processes:
By understanding quickly what is going on, you can observe the changing situation clearly. You will have to look at yourself and the situation as though you were an outsider and not from your own point of view. All senses are used at this stage, as a result of which as much information can be collected as practically possible.
At the orientation step you will know what has to be done. This does not only concern position, but also the possible options you can visualize. John Boyd distinguishes the following factors that play an important role in this stage including genetic inheritance, cultural traditions, past experiences, analysis and new information.
Orientation does not only indicate how you see the world, but also what kind of world you are capable of seeing. The orientation stage is described as the most important process in the OODA Loop. The information from step 1 is organized.
This stage is about learning from experiences. Based on someone’s current mental perspective, they make decisions and determine what course of action they need to take. The right decision is taken and actions follow from this.
The physical execution of the decision is a fact at this stage. The selected approach is actually carried out. Experiences and/ or consequences of the approach are forwarded to the first stage, observe, after which the loop is complete and the cycle starts over again. It is a very quick process.
The objective is that a potential opponent’s OODA Loop does not get the chance to be completed as well, so that the opponent always keeps running behind the facts. The combination of observation and orientation leads to a decision which in turn leads to action. And then the cycle starts over again.
It is a continuous process in which you should always be on the alert in a changing environment. When there is an equilibrium state, there is little chance of survival.
Disadvantages of the OODA Loop
As a military strategist, John Boyd didn’t confine himself to any particular discipline and his theories encompass ideas drawn from various disciplines, including mathematical logic, biology, psychology, thermodynamics, game theory, anthropology, and physics.
Unfortunately, Boyd never wrote down his ideas on the OODA Loop in articles or a book, but he mentioned them in his presentations. This is why there are various interpretations of this model. Although the model is detailed and widely used, it does have certain disadvantages:
- The model skips ‘memory’. When a situation has occurred before, the wheel does not have to be reinvented all over again by going through the OODA Loop again.
- The model has not been tested scientifically, so there is no proof that the OODA Loop is correct.
- The model does not incorporate an opponent, although we have to reckon with opponents by being faster than they are.
- The model does not include the factor ‘cooperation’ and is based too much on gunfights. By working with teams in accordance with the OODA Loop model, a new outcome is created. Other factors then also come into play, including negotiation, task allocation, hierarchy, human behaviour, motivation, and so on. These are all factors that affect the decision-making process.
It’s Your Turn
What do you think? Is the OODA Loop model applicable in today’s modern business and personal challenges? Do you recognize the practical explanation or do you have more suggestions? What are your success factors for a good decision making process?
Share your experience and knowledge in the comments box below.
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- Brehmer, B. (2005, June). The dynamic OODA loop: Amalgamating Boyd’s OODA loop and the cybernetic approach to command and control. In Proceedings of the 10th international command and control research technology symposium (pp. 365-368).
- Boyd, J. R. (1996). The essence of winning and losing. Unpublished lecture notes, 12(23), 123-125.
- Ford, D. (2010). A Vision So Noble: John Boyd, the Ooda Loop, and America’s War on Terror. Daniel Ford.
- Ullman, D. G. (2006). Making robust decisions: decision management for technical, business, and service teams. Trafford on Demand Pub.
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