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Reflection Model

What is a reflection model?
A reflection model is a model used for personal and situational analysis and improvement or development. Reflection is a concept that emphasizes awareness when it comes to our own knowledge, experiences and beliefs from the past.

What is a reflection model?
A reflection model is a model used for personal and situational analysis and improvement or development. Reflection is a concept that emphasizes awareness when it comes to our own knowledge, experiences and beliefs from the past.

Models for reflection are very useful for understanding one’s own thinking and acting experiences. An example of this is action learning.

Reflection allows individuals to relate their newly acquired knowledge to their previous understanding. There are many different reflection models. Some of these are briefly explained below.

Reflection Model STARR

The STARR reflection model is a widely used reflection method. The acronym STARR stands for Situation, Task, Action, Result, Reflection. It is a very simple model that is widely used by interviewers.

Gibbs’ Reflection Model

Gibbs’ Reflection Model was developed in 1988 by Graham Gibbs to structure learning from experience. It provides a practical framework for analyzing experiences and is particularly applicable to repeated experiences. The six phases are:

  1. Description of the experience
  2. Feelings and thoughts about the experience
  3. Evaluation of the experience
  4. Analysis of the situation
  5. Conclusion on what has been learned
  6. A plan of action for the future

Kolb’s Reflection Model

Humans have been engaged in reflection for centuries. Several hundred years before Christ, Confucius wrote about the power of reflective practice for improving the human condition.

In modern times, the name David Kolb often comes up when it comes to reflection and the reflective practice. David Kolb’s learning theory states that reflective practice is necessary to learn and facilitate development.

Like Jean Piaget, David Kolb viewed learning as an experiential and largely autonomous process. In his words, learning is the process of developing knowledge through the transformation of experience.

What-model by John Driscoll

Another simple reflection model was developed by John Driscoll. This model is called the What-model and stems from the 1990s. Driscoll based his model on the studies of Terry Borton, who argued that three questions are important in reflection:

  1. What?
  2. So what?
  3. Now what?

By asking yourself these three questions, you can begin to analyze and learn from past experiences and actions.

First, you describe the context of the situation. This way you get a clear picture of what you are dealing with. With the question ‘so what?’ you think about what you have learned from the situation. Finally, you need to think about the actions you will take in response to the analyzed situation.

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Benefits of reflecting

Reflection helps to let people generate valuable insights from their experiences. This allows them to improve their behavior and actions. The benefits of reflection are therefore priceless.

  • Models help structure reflection and development
  • Reflection models help people who don’t know where to start reflecting
  • Using reflection models, the experience is approached from multiple perspectives in order to extract as much value as possible
  • The use of a reflection technique ensures a clear end point of the reflection process
  • Reflection improves people’s metacognition
  • It optimizes performance management
  • Reflection increases self-motivation
  • Korthagen Reflection Model

    April 11th, 2022

    Korthagen Reflection Model: in this article the Korthagen Reflection Model, developed by Fred Korthagen is explained in a practical way. After reading you will understand the basics of this powerful personal development and self-reflection tool. What is the Korthagen…

    Action Learning

    March 25th, 2022

    Action Learning: this article explains Action Learning in a practical way. After reading it you will understand the basics of this powerful management and development tool. What is Action Learning? Action learning is a process for developing creative solutions to…

    John Driscoll Model of Reflection

    March 9th, 2022

    John Driscoll Model of Reflection: This article provides a practical explanation of the John Driscoll Model of Reflection After reading this article, you’ll understand the basics of this powerful communication and personal development tool. What is the John Driscoll…

    Brookfield Model of Reflection

    March 8th, 2022

    Brookfield Model of Reflection: this article provides a practical explanation of the Brookfield Model of Reflection After reading this article, you’ll understand the basics of this powerful reflection tool to improve learning skills and critical self-reflection. What is the Brookfield…

    Boud Reflection Model

    March 8th, 2022

    Boud Reflection Model: this article explains the Boud et al Reflection Model, also called Reflection of Learning, in a practical way. After reading, you will understand the basic concepts of this powerful reflective cycle learning tool for professionals who wish…

    Atkins and Murphy model of reflection

    March 8th, 2022

    Atkins and Murphy model of reflection: this article explains the Atkins and Murphy model of reflection in a practical way. After reading it you will understand the basics of this personal development and self-reflection tool. What is the Atkins…

    Metacognition (Flavell)

    January 31st, 2022

    Metacognition: this article explains Metacognition in a practical way. After reading, you’ll understand the basics of this powerful psychological tool and human thinking method. What is Metacognition?/h2Definition Metacognition is ‘thinking about thinking’, ‘knowing about knowing’ and ‘becoming aware of…

    Gibbs Reflective Cycle by Graham Gibbs

    January 28th, 2022

    Gibbs Reflective Cycle: this article explains the Gibbs Reflective Cycle by Graham Gibbs in a practical way. After reading it, you understand the core of this management and self-reflection tool. This article contains also a downloadable and editable Gibbs Reflective…

    Johns Model of Reflection (MSR)

    August 19th, 2021

    Johns Model of Reflection: this article provides a practical explanation of Johns Model of Reflection. After reading this article, you’ll understand the basics of this powerful experiential learning and reflective practice tool. What is Johns Model of Reflection? The…

    Kolb Reflective Cycle

    September 16th, 2014

    This article explains the David Kolb Reflective Cycle, further developed by David Kolb, in a practical way. After reading you will understand the basics of this powerful management tool. What is the David Kolb Reflective Cycle? The American…
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