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Carl Jung (Carl Gustav Jung; 1875 – 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst and was one of the founders of analytical psychology, a theory of the human mind and therapeutic practice. His work was universal, and for this reason, his work was used in psychiatry, anthropology, philosophy, art, literature, and religious studies. Carl Jung proposed and developed many of today’s psychological concepts such as synchronicity, archetypal phenomena, the collective unconscious, the psychological complex, and extroverted and introverted personalities. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) has also derived from Carl Jung’s theory of psychological types.
Biography Carl Jung
He was an only child and his childhood was disturbed. Carl Jung’s father was a village pastor and it was expected that Carl Jung would become a pastor as well. Instead, Carl Jung had always been interested in observing the behavior of his parents and teachers, perhaps because of his loneliness.
According to Carl Jung, his father was a kind man and attempted to build a relationship with God but he was entrapped in the church’s theological thinking. At the same time, his mother seemed to have two personalities and was suffering mental illness. This situation had perhaps triggered Carl Jung to study this behavior. As a result, he began reading philosophy in his teens.
Carl Jung studied psychiatry at the University of Basel from 1895 until 1900. After he obtained this degree, Carl Jung started his study on Psychology and Pathology of so-called Occult Phenomena at the University of Zurich. He worked with the staff from Burghölzli (psychiatric hospital of the University of Zurich) under the direction of Eugen Bleuler, a Swiss psychiatrist and eugenicist who had become familiar for his understanding of mental illness. Carl Jung obtained his M.D. at the University of Zurich in 1902.
After he received his M.D., Carl Jung followed a traineeship in Paris with Pierre Janet, one of the founding fathers of psychology, for one year. When he returned to Zurich he was called senior physician at Burghölzli.
In that time, Carl Jung began to apply association tests. This is the act of remembering or recalling the past which was initiated by earlier researchers. Carl Jung identified that illogical and emotional responses were caused by subconscious associations around immoral or sexual content. He called this a ‘complex’ and is the today’s term to describe such conditions.
Due to previous researches, Carl Jung had built its reputation and his work confirmed many of Sigmund Freud’s ideas. Between 1907 and 1912, Carl Jung and Sigmund Freud, a neurologist and also the founder of psychoanalysis, became partners because of the same interest in the unconscious.
In 1911, after a request of Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung had been elected as president of the International Psychoanalytic Society. This organization established to advance psychoanalysis and to ensure continued development of the science of psychoanalysis.
Even though they had experienced in-depth collaboration, due to differences in viewpoint and various disagreements their partnership ended. The primary cause occurred in 1912 when Carl Jung published ‘Psychology of the Unconscious’. Carl Jung’s assumptions of his analytical psychology was in contradiction with Sigmund Freud’s ideas. Because of this conflict, others in the psychoanalytic community had also avoided Carl Jung.
In 1914, he resigned from his position at the International Psychoanalytic Society. Carl Jung decided to further distinguish his work from Sigmund Freud. He differentiated the functions of the mind into thinking, feeling, sensation, and intuition. Carl Jung states that one or more functions predominate in any person. The results of this identification were expressed in ‘Psychological Types’ in 1921.
Carl Jung always had ambitious dreams. After the collaboration with Sigmund Freud ended, Carl Jung allowed himself to explore his mind.
At that time, he recorded all strange experiences and developed the theory ‘collective unconscious as a result. This theory was combined with a theory of archetypes. These are images and thoughts that have universal meanings across cultures. According to Carl Jung, this theory is fundamental to the study the psychology of religion.
Carl Jung devoted the rest of his life to developing new psychotherapeutic methods that were derived from his own experience, especially those concerning religion and psychology. Carl Jung studied different cultures around the globe and published extensively on his findings.
As a result, in 1933, he published the ‘Modern Man in Search of a Soul’ and ‘The Undiscovered Self’ in 1957.
He taught that the Christian religion was part of a historical process which was necessary for the development of consciousness. He also stated that heretical movements were a manifestation of unconscious archetypal elements which were not adequately expressed in the mainstream form of Christianity.
Carl Jung’s studies helped him to study the psychotherapy of the middle-aged and elderly people, and focused on the ones who have lost their religious belief. Carl Jung identified that when this group discovers their myth as expressed in an imagination, their personalities will become more complete. He called this process individuation.
In 1932, Carl Jung was awarded Zurich’s literature prize and in 1938 he was elected an honorary fellow of England’s Royal Society of Medicine.
Carl Jung later became a professor of psychology at the Federal Polytechnic University in Zurich from 1933 till 1941. In 1943, he became a professor of medical psychology at the University of Basel and in 1944 he was named an honorary member of the Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences. In 1948, Carl Jung founded C.G. Jung institute as a non-profit charitable foundation. Under the direction of Carl Jung, a post-graduate training program in psychotherapy established. After recognition for the first graduates in 1953, the institute gained worldwide attention.
Carl Jung quotes
- “Your vision will become clear only when you can look into your own heart. Who looks outside, dreams; who looks inside, awakes.”
- “Everything that irritates us about others can lead us to an understanding of ourselves.”
- “Who looks outside, dreams; who looks inside, awakes.”
- “Knowing your own darkness is the best method for dealing with the darknesses of other people.”
- “In all chaos there is a cosmos, in all disorder a secret order.”
- “A particularly beautiful woman is a source of terror. As a rule, a beautiful woman is a terrible disappointment.”
- “Man needs difficulties; they are necessary for health.”
- “The greatest and most important problems of life are all fundamentally insoluble. They can never be solved but only outgrown.”
- “There is no coming to consciousness without pain.”
Publications and books by Carl Jung et al.
- 2016. Psychological types. Taylor & Francis.
- 2015. Psychology of dementia praecox. Princeton University Press.
- 2014. The archetypes and the collective unconscious. Routledge.
- 2014. Psychology and Religion Volume 11: West and East. Routledge.
- 2014. Two essays on analytical psychology (Vol. 7). Routledge.
- 2014. Symbols of transformation (Vol. 5). Routledge.
- 2014. The structure and dynamics of the psyche (Vol. 8). Routledge.
- 2014. Psychology and alchemy (Vol. 12). Routledge.
- 2014. Mysterium coniunctionis: An inquiry into the separation and synthesis of psychic opposites in alchemy. Routledge.
- 2014. On the nature of the psyche. Routledge.
- 2014. Collected Works of CG Jung, Volume 17: Development of Personality: Development of Personality (Vol. 17). Princeton University Press.
- 2014. The practice of psychotherapy (Vol. 16). Routledge.
- 2014. Four archetypes. Routledge.
- 2014. Alchemical studies (Vol. 13). Routledge.
- 2014. The spirit of man in art and literature (Vol. 15). Routledge.
- 2014. Civilization in transition (Vol. 10). Routledge.
- 2013. The psychology of the transference. Routledge.
- 2013. The essential Jung: selected and introduced by Anthony Storr. Princeton University Press.
- 2012. The undiscovered self: With symbols and the interpretation of dreams. Princeton University Press.
- 2012. Liber novus. WW Norton & Company.
- 2012. The interpretation of nature and the psyche. Ishi Press International.
- 2001. Modern man in search of a soul. Psychology Press.
- 1978. Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth of Things Seen in the Sky.(From Vols. 10 and 18, Collected Works) (Vol. 20). Princeton University Press.
- 1972. The trickster: A study in American Indian mythology (Vol. 351). Schocken.
- 1971. The stages of life. The portable Jung, 3-22.
- 1964. Approaching the unconscious. Man and his symbols, 18-103.
- 1964. Man and his symbols. Laurel.
- 1964. The collected works of CG Jung (Vol. 10). London, UK: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
- 1963. Memories, dreams. Reflections, 84.
- 1962. The secret of the golden flower: a Chinese book of life. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
- 1959. Aion: Researches into the Phenomenology of the Self.
- 1959. The basic writings of CG Jung.
- 1957, 1916. The transcendent function. Edited and published by the Students Association, CG Jung Institute.
- 1949. Essays on a science of mythology.
- 1940. The psychology of the child archetype. Coll. wks, 9(1), 162.
- 1939. The integration of the personality.
- 1939. Conscious, unconscious, and individuation. Coll. wks, 9(1).
- 1936. The concept of the collective unconscious. Collected works, 9(1), 42.
- 1935. The Tavistock Lectures.
- 1928. The relations between the ego and the unconscious.
- 1928. Contributions to analytical psychology.
- 1923. Psychological types: or the psychology of individuation.
- 1916. Analytical psychology. Moffat, Yard.
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