14 Principles of Management (Fayol)
This article explains the administrative theory and management theory of the 14 Principles of Management by Henri Fayol in a practical way. After reading you will understand the basics of this powerful management tool.
The 14 principles of Management are:
Division of Work
Authority and Responsibility
Unity of Command
Unity of Direction
Subordination of Individual Interest
The Degree of Centralization
Stability of Tenure of Personnel
Esprit de Corps
History of the 14 principles of Management
In the last century, organizations already had to deal with management in practice. In the early 1900s, large organizations, such as production factories, had to be managed too. At the time there were only few (external) management tools, models and methods available.
Thanks to scientists like Henri Fayol (1841-1925) the first foundations were laid for modern scientific management.
These first concepts, also called principles of management are the underlying factors for successful management. Henri Fayol explored this comprehensively and, as a result, he synthesized the 14 principles of management. Henri Fayol 's principles of management and research were published in the book ‘General and Industrial Management’ (1916).
14 Principles of Management of Henri Fayol
14 principles of Management are statements that are based on a fundamental truth. These principles of management serve as a guideline for decision-making and management actions. They are drawn up by means of observations and analyses of events that managers encounter in practice. Henri Fayol was able to synthesize 14 principles of management after years of study.
1. Division of Work
In practice, employees are specialized in different areas and they have different skills. Different levels of expertise can be distinguished within the knowledge areas (from generalist to specialist).
Personal and professional developments support this. According to Henri Fayol specialization promotes efficiency of the workforce and increases productivity. In addition, the specialization of the workforce increases their accuracy and speed. This management principle of the 14 principles of management is applicable to both technical and managerial activities.
2. Authority and Responsibility
In order to get things done in an organization, management has the authority to give orders to the employees. Of cour...
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